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Environmental Crime Legal Framework In Andorra

The preamble to the Principality of Andorra’s constitution states that the nation is “willing to bring their collaboration and effort to all the common causes of mankind, and especially to those of preserving the integrity of the Earth and guaranteeing an environment fit for life for the coming generations.”

The Sustainable Andorra Centre functions as an administrative tool for providing environmental education and raising public awareness of the importance of preserving biodiversity and sustainable development.

Featured Legislation

2004: Act No. 25 on waste.

With a view to protecting public health and the environment, this Act lays down the legislative framework relative to waste management, waste prevention and recycling. It shall apply to all solid and liquid waste which is produced within the territory of Andorra and which does not fall within more specific provisions in force (art. 2). The Act has been adopted in the light of the precautionary principle, as defined under article 5. The Government shall organize and coordinate the waste management

2006: Andorra entered into a trilateral agreement with Spain and France to address endangered bears and wolves in the Pyrenees

2013: Law N. 21 on energy efficiency in buildings and promotion of the use of renewable energies

This law aims at improving the quality of the national real estate park. It encourages the rehabilitation of existing buildings with the aim of improving the conditions of habitability, accessibility, industrial safety and general security of the building, facades, sustainability and energy efficiency, and promotes the implementation of renewable energies both in existing buildings and those of new construction.

Art. 6 stipulates that the measures contained in the program to encourage the modernization and improvement of the real estate park and the implantation of renewable energies necessarily consist of direct subsidies and preferential loans to the promoters of the proceedings.

2014: Andorra entered into another trilateral agreement with Spain and France in an attempt to reintroduce threatened wildlife populations in the Pyrenees.

2015: Andorra ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity and its National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) was used to achieve its Aichi Biodiversity Targets during the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity.

2016: Andorra finalized an evaluation report on the protection of its biodiversity and conservation of wetlands. The report outlines the principal objectives to achieve by 2024: In compliance with the Ramsar Convention.

2019: The Andorran Government passed the Bill of Conservation of the Natural Environment, Biodiversity and Landscape. The Bill mandates environmental assessment procedures when “protected natural spaces or threatened species” are affected by development projects. The Law consists of 61 articles divided into eight Titles, establishing the legal framework for the protection, conservation, improvement, restoration and sustainable use of the natural environment, biodiversity and landscape of Andorra.Title VIII of the Bill contains the classification of offences and the penalties for violating environmental legislation. For example, fines of between 60 to 300 euros will be applied for minor infractions; 3,000 euros for serious ones; and up to 12,000 for very serious infractions.

2021: National energy strategy against climate change

This document sets Andorra’s vision to enable mitigation and adaptation measures over the period 2020-2050. The strategy is divided into five programmes: 1) decarbonisation, 2) raising adaptation and resilience capabilities, 3) enable carbon credits and other fiscal measures that can lead to carbon neutrality, 4) social transition and 5) innovation, research and systematic data collection.

  • Andorra’s ratification of the Paris agreement on climate change has resulted in a commitment to a 37% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.

Featured Case Studies: Transnational Environmental Crime, Human Security, and Biosecurity

  • Andorra’s river banks serve as hotspots for waste abandonment. Authorities detect an increase in “black spots” in the rivers and an accumulation of used tires in the fields. As a result of this illegal dumping, the government of Andorra has created a website where anonymous reports can be filed by citizens who observe these environmental offences. Andorra’s Bearded Vulture is one of the most iconic and endangered species of bird in Europe. Mitigation plans have been drafted by the Ministry and the Association for the Defence of Nature (ADN) in an attempt to save this species of bird from extinction.

References and Further Reading


Ministry of the Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability of the Principality of Andorra: Ms. Sílvia Calvó Armengol,