1993: The Health Policy was enacted, providing guidelines and directives for prevention of environmental pollution resulting from hazardous chemical wastes.
1995: Proclamation No. 9 was approved, providing for the establishment of the Environmental Protection Authority.
1997: The Environment Policy was passed. The policy's stated goal is to “improve and enhance the health and quality of life of all Ethiopians and to promote sustainable social and economic development through the sound management and use of natural, human-made and cultural resources and the environment as a whole”. One sectoral policy specifically addresses climate change and atmospheric pollution, through:
- Promoting a climate monitoring programme
- Acknowledging a commitment to mitigate emissions, even at low or even insignificant levels of contribution to global emissions
- Actively participating in protecting the ozone layer, as a means to reduce vulnerability of the highlands of Ethiopia
- Encouraging re-vegetation, monitoring grazing and rehabilitating degraded land to compensate for high biomass-fuel consumption
2001: National Water Strategy of Ethiopia
This National Water Strategy is one of the three actions to reform the water sector in Ethiopia. Its main objective is to translate the national water resources management policy into action. It contains a set of short, medium and long-term action programs to realize the achievement of development goals and water-related policies: improving the living standard and general socio-economic well-being of the Ethiopian people; realizing food self-sufficiency and food security in the country; extending water supply and sanitation coverage to large segments of the society, thus achieving improved environmental health conditions; generating additional hydro-power; enhancing the contribution of water resources in attaining national development priorities; promoting the principles of integrated water resources management. Fundamental principles pertaining to the formulation of national water strategy remain the same as those were adapted for the preparation of national water resources management policy.
2002: Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation
This Proclamation prescribes that no person shall commence any new development activity under any category listed in any directive issued pursuant to this Proclamation ('project') which requires an environmental impact assessment (further specified in art. 5) without an authorization of the Environmental Protection Authority. The Authority or the relevant regional environmental agency may decide that the possible impact of the project is significant and therefore that no EIA shall be carried out (art. 3). Licensing agencies shall before issuing an investment permit or trade or operating license, ensure that EIA requirements have been fulfilled. Article 4 sets out criteria for the determination of impact. Article 6 concerns impact assessment for projects that are likely to have an impact on the environment of two or more regions. Proponents shall draft IEA in accordance with articles 7 to 9. The Authority shall take a decision on the submitted project/EIA in accordance with article 9. Other provisions of this Proclamation deal with occurrence of new circumstances (art. 11), monitoring of implementation (art. 12), EIA of a public instrument (art. 13), jurisdiction of agencies (art. 14), public participation (art. 15), and various miscellaneous issues. Article 18 prescribes offenses and penalties.
2002: Proclamation No. 299 was created to implement the country’s environmental impact assessments framework.
2008: Regulation No. 159 was promulgated in an attempt to prevent industrial pollution.
2008: Proclamation No. 575 was signed. The legislation oversees Ethiopian wildlife development and conservation.
Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change: firstname.lastname@example.org