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Environmental Crime Legal Framework In Grenada

The Central government is responsible for environmental protection in Grenada. Agencies responsible for environmental management include:

  • The Physical Planning Unit of the Ministry of Communication, Works, Physical Development, Public Utilities, ICT and Community Development
  • The Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources, Physical Planning & Fisheries
  • The Land Use Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources, Physical Planning & Fisheries
  • The Environmental Health Department of the Ministry of Health and Social Security

  • Featured Legislation

    1973: The Litter Abatement Act was enacted (and was supplemented by the waste management Act of 2001) to address pollution control and the elimination of litter.

    1978: Grenada’s  Ports Authority Act was signed. This Act lays down rules for the regulation and control of navigation within the limits of Grenada’s ports and their approaches in the areas adjacent to ports. In accordance with the provisions of this Act, an area to be a port or an area adjacent to a port to be the approaches to a port may be declared by the Minister after consultation with the Grenada Ports Authority. This Act sets forth provisions on the establishment, structure, administration, powers and duties of the Grenada Ports Authority; finance management of the Authority; liabilities of the Authority for loss, damage, misdelivery and detention in warehouses; fees and charges in respect of vessels; duty of consignee to deliver description of goods; declaration of compulsory pilotage areas by the Authority; appointment and functions of Pilotage Committee; obligations of the master of vessels to submit documents required on arrival; appointment of warehouses; and offences and penalties. The duties of the Grenada Ports Authority are the management of ports in line with public interest objectives; the regulation and control of navigation within the limits of Grenada’s ports and their approaches; the regulation and improvement of the use of ports and port services; the provision of navigational services for ports and their approaches; and the performance of duties relating to navigation and shipping. The Grenada Ports Authority may make regulations regarding the maintenance, control and management of ports and their approaches and all matters relating to protection of the marine environment, life and property; regarding the conveyance, loading, discharge and storage of dangerous goods within the limits of a port; as well as inspection, licensing and registration of vessels in accordance with the law relating to merchant shipping.

    1986: The Fisheries Act was promulgated to provide for the protection of marine resources.

    1991: The National Parks and Protected Areas Act was adopted, overseeing the maintenance of National Parks and protected areas.

    1995: The Solid Waste Management Act No 11 was signed, establishing the Solid Waste Management Authority. The agency was charged with the duty of developing solid waste facilities and improving the coverage and effectiveness of solid waste storage, collection and disposal facilities.

    1997: The Environmental Levy Act No 5 was created, imposing and collecting environmental levies on certain goods and services.

    2001: The Waste Management Act No 16 supplemented the Litter Abatement Act of 1973, providing for the management of waste in conformity with best environmental practices and related matters.

    2002: The Physical Planning and Development Control Act No 25 was brought into force to include provisions for environmental impact assessments (EIAs).

    2009: The Beach Protection Amendment Act was introduced to prohibit sand mining in Grenada.

    2011: The National Energy Policy was unveiled. It is a national policy with a multi-sectoral approach. The overall goal of this Policy is to ensure access to affordable, equitable, and reliable energy sources and services to ensure energy security and to improve the quality of life for all citizens. To this end, this Policy lays down strategies to facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources into the national energy mix; guarantee the development of indigenous hydrocarbon resources; ensure social inclusiveness and equity to access to energy; and build a more competitive and productive economy. Climate change adaptation and mitigation will be integrated into the energy sector to achieve a low carbon development and a more diversified and sustainable energy sector. Risk and vulnerability assessments will be conducted on all major energy infrastructure to increase the resilience of energy assets, especially for the ones located in coastal areas. The use of renewable energy resources, particularly in the form of geothermal, solar and wind, will be promoted to ensure energy security and to reduce the reliance on imported energy sources. Public awareness will be raised on energy efficiency and conservation to encourage energy-saving behaviour by all consumers. Incentives will be provided to households to generate their own energy through renewable energy sources. The use of energy-efficient and low impact production measures will be promoted in the agriculture sector to achieve agricultural development while ensuring energy conservation and protecting the environment. In order to reduce energy requirements for irrigation, recycling and harvesting of water for agricultural use will be promoted. Furthermore, institutional capacity building will be enhanced and the National Sustainable Energy Office and the Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency will be established to strengthen the management of the energy sector. Legislative and regulatory frameworks will be developed by updating the existing legislation. Offshore hydrocarbon programme will be developed by conducting EIA, completing seismic data surveys, and carrying out licensing. The participation in regional and international sustainable energy initiatives will be enhanced and the linkage between energy policy and climate change negotiations will be strengthened. A National Energy Commission will be established to monitor the implementation of this policy.

    2019: The National Water Policy 2019 (NWP 2019) was tabled. It was formulated through a participatory process of focus groups and consultations involving many government ministries and agencies, and non-government stakeholders. In 2007, the first NWP was developed for Grenada, but by 2018 the Policy was never implemented.

    Featured Case Studies: Transnational Environmental Crime, Human Security, and Biosecurity

    • In 2019: Keith Claudius Mitchell, the Prime Minister of Grenada, declared that the nation was on the front line in the war against climate change. These remarks came after the release of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 2018 special report on the effects of global warming. Grenada’s citizens have succumbed to mangled towns, villages, homes and critical infrastructure; displacement; devastated crops; and collapsed economies and financial markets as a result of Hurricanes Irma and Maria in the region. Coastal communities are especially hit hard because warming waters and acidifying oceans have decimated landscapes and ecosystems. Prime Minister Mitchell has made commitments to setting targets in line with the IPCC’s 1.5 degree Celsius report published in 2018 and the Global Assessment on biodiversity and Ecosystems Services. The government is also creating frameworks that can incentivize clean transport and power that is generated from the sun, wind, waves and ecosystems. Finally, Grenada, with the support of partners like the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) Partnership (a way for nations to show their commitment to the Paris Agreement), is putting in place concrete plans to curb greenhouse gas emissions by 50% by 2030.

    References and Further Reading


    Ministry Of Climate Resilience, The Environment, Forestry, Fisheries & Disaster Management: