India’s constitutional provisions give certain power and rights to the citizens to protect the environment. Article 48A, for example, reads: “ State shall endeavor to protect the environment. It also emphasizes on safeguarding the forests and wildlife of the country.” Article 48A also imposes a duty on the State to protect the environment from pollution by adopting various measures.
Article 51 A(g) states that it shall be the duty of each and every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment that includes lakes, rivers, forests and wildlife. Unlike Article 48A, it concentrates on the fundamental duty of citizens whereas Article 48A instructs the state to perform their duties and protect the environment.
Article 47 imposes a duty on the State in order to improve the standards of living of citizens by providing health facilities, proper nutrition, and sanitization and protect the environment to live safely.
Article 21 states that the right to life is not just for animals but it also provides the right to humans to live safely in an environment with basic human dignities.
Article 19(1) (g) states that citizens cannot practice such trade or business activities which are hazardous to public health.
Article 32 & 226 provides the right to citizens to approach the Supreme or High Court whenever there is violation of fundamental right by PIL (Public Interest Litigation). This article helps preserve the environment and maintain ecological balance. This Article also illustrates that environmental conservation is not just the duty of the government but also the responsibility of citizens of India.