Saint Kitts and Nevis

International Treaties

Sustainable Development

Environmental Law

Case Studies

Corruption Perceptions Index


Environmental Crime Legal Framework in Saint Kitts and Nevis

The National Conservation and Environmental Management Bill serves as the framework for environmental protection in Saint Kitts and Nevis, providing for the administration and allocation of administrative responsibilities for environment management, conservation and sustainable use and development of biological diversity, natural resources and the natural and cultural heritage of St. Kitts and Nevis; the designation and management of terrestrial and marine protected areas; pollution prevention and control; the incorporation of international obligations with respect to environmental matters into national law and for related or incidental matters.

Featured Legislation

1984: The Fisheries Act was instituted. This act provides for the licensing of local foreign fishing vessels,  conferring upon the Minister the power to enter into arrangements or agreements dealing with access or otherwise in regard to fishery matters.

1994: The St. Kitts and Nevis National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) was introduced. This Action Plan is a multi-sectoral policy that analyses the environmental issues affecting St. Kitts and Nevis in a comprehensive, multi-sectoral framework and sets forth a long-term strategy for maintaining the country’s natural environment, the health and safety of its population, and its cultural heritage as economic development occurs.

1999: The ​​National Disaster Management Act was promulgated. This Act lays down rules for the effective management and control of disasters as well as mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from disasters and emergencies. This Act sets forth provisions on the establishment of an Agency for disaster preparedness and response and its administration, powers and duties.

2002: The Marine Pollution Management Act was passed, providing for the protection of ecologically sensitive marine resources. The legislation also enhances environmental quality of territorial waters and adjacent international waters; gives effect to certain international conventions relating to pollution of the sea; implements port-state control to improve management of ship-generated wastes and prevent harm to safety, health and the marine environment from shipping activities; and encourages good environmental operating practices in commercial, cruise liner and leisure shipping and in ports, marinas and harbors.

2009: The Pesticides (Labeling and Storage of Containers) Regulations were created. These Regulations, made under the Pesticides and Toxic Chemicals Act, concern labeling and storage of pesticides for sale in St. Kitts and Nevis. Pesticides shall be stored in a place specified in a valid certificate signed by the Chairperson of the Board certifying that it is a place approved by the Pesticides and Toxic Chemicals Control Board for the storage of the pesticides mentioned in the certificate.

2009: The International Trade in Wild Fauna and Flora Act was signed. This Act aims at compliance of St. Christopher and Nevis with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and in particular international trade of specimens listed in Appendix I, Appendix II and Appendix III of the Convention. The Act, among other things: provides for the designation by the Minister of a Management Authority and a Scientific Authority for purposes of this Act; grants power to the Minister to establish a Conservation Fund; places restrictions on trade in and possession of listed fauna and flora and captive breeding of listed animals and artificial propagation of listed plants; provides for a system of registration, certification and authorization; provides for a control mechanism for the international trade of listed specimens; defines various exemptions; and provides for measures of enforcement for purposes of this Act.

2009: The Solid Waste Management Act was approved, providing for the management of solid waste in conformity with the best environmental practices and to provide for related or incidental matters.

Featured Case Studies: Transnational Environmental Crime, Human Security, and Biosecurity

  • The Minister of Environment, the Honorable Eric Evelyn,  issued a warning in 2021 to anyone illegally dumping waste outside of an official waste station, as well as littering the streets and other surrounding areas, because such practices cause great environmental issues and harm to human health. Making a plea to exhibit more national pride, Evelyn has initiated a campaign to clean up the streets, reducing waste and criminalizing the illegal disposal of waste. The idea of litter wardens (empowered to charge people when they litter) has been brought up by the minister, highlighting the role they will play in painting the country as a prominent tourist destination, with key stakeholders and the general public involved in raising awareness about the importance of proper waste management practices. Of particular import is the The National Conservation and Environmental Management Bill, which will be leveraged to enact pollution prevention and control; the incorporation of international obligations with respect to environmental matters into national law and for related or incidental matters.

References and Further Reading


Department of Environment: June Hughes, and Conservation Officer Cheryl Jeffers,